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219 Powerful Reasons To Believe In God
Humans Have 219 Distinct Types of Cells (That Are Known)

# Name Of Cell What The Cell Does
Keratin (Hair and Nails)
1 Epidermal Keratinocyte Most common skin cell on surface of body; they die and protect from infection.
2 Epidermal Basal Cell Skin cell at base of the epidermis. Creates new skin cells to renew the epidermis.
3 Keratinocyte Fingernails and toenails.
4 Nail Bed Basal Cell Cells Directly under the fingernail or toe nail.
5 Medullary Hair Shaft Cell The cells inside a hair shaft.
6 Cortical Hair Shaft Cell The outer region of hair.
7 Cuticular Hair Shaft Cell The nonliving outermost layer.
8 Hair Root Sheath Huxley An inner layer of hair.
9 Hair Root Sheath Henle An inner layer of hair.
10 Ext. Hair Root Sheath Cell An outer layer of hair.
11 Hair Matrix Cell A stem cell that gives rise to the hair shaft.
Wet Stratified Barrier Epithial Cells (Epithelial Cells are Tissue on Surfaces Such As Glands)
12 Surface Epithial In cornea, tongue, anus, urethra and vagina
13 Basal Cell Stem Epithelia In cornea, tongue, anus, urethra and vagina
14 Urinary Epithial Cell Urinary bladder and urinary ducts.
Exocrine Secretory Epithial Cells (Surface Cells That Excrete A Substance)
15 Salivary Mucous Cells Used for moistening and lubrication of saliva.
16 Salivary Serous Cells Contains enzymes used for digesting carbohydrates
17 Von Ebner's Gland Cell Gland on tongue that provides constant flow on taste buds to cleanse
18 Mammary Gland Cells Producing milk for young.
19 Lacrimal Gland Cell Tear secretion.
20 Ceruminous Gland Cell Ear Wax Secretion
21 Eccrine Sweat Gland Dark Secretes glycoprotiens in sweat
22 Eccrine Sweat Gland Clear Secretes small molecules in sweat
23 Apocrine Sweat Gland Glands under the arms, a different sweat, higher in proteins and fatty acids.
24 Gland of Moll Cell In eyelid. Secretes a lipid to slow down vaporization of tears.
25 Sebaceous Gland Cell Skin cell that secretes sebum to protect and lubricate skin.
26 Bowman's Gland Cell Secrete mucus to clean and lubricate inside of nose.
27 Brunner's Gland Cell Secrete mucus to clean, protect and lubricate inside of duodenum.
28 Seminal Vesicle Cell Produces liquids that help to make up semen.
29 Prostate Gland Cell Produces liquids that help to make up semen.
30 Cowper's Gland Produces pre-ejaculate to flush urine, neutralize acids and lubricate urethra.
31 Bartholin Gland Cell Produces lubrication for the vagina.
32 Gland of Littre Cell Gland in urethra that produces mucus and adds to semen
33 Uterus Endometrium Cell Inner membranes of uterus; essential for pregnancy, the placenta and menstrual cycle.
34 Isolated Goblet Cells Goblet shaped in respiratory and digestive tracts; secretes mucous for lubrication.
35 Stomach Lining Mucous Cell Secretes unique mucous to protect stomach from digestive liquids (highly acidic)
36 Gastric Gland Oxynetic Cell Produce Hydrochloric acid for digestion; also called parietal cells
37 Gastric Gland Zymogenic Cell In stomach releases enzyme that degrades proteins to peptides (amino acid strings).
38 Pancreatic Acinar Cell Produces bicarbonate; maintains body's ph balance and makes digestive enzymes
39 Paneth Cell in Small Intest. Immune system; When exposed to bacteria, secretes molecules to protect small int.
40 Pneumocyte They wet the alveoli of the lungs to protect and increase respiration efficiency
41 Clara Cells Protect lungs; they secretes variety of liquids to detoxify substances inhaled.
Hormone Secreting Cells
Note: The next five types of cells are in anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (which is the size of a pea)
42 Lactotropes Produce & secretes hormones for breast milk, motor activity, sleep & learning
43 Thyrotropes Produces and secretes hormones to regulate the thyroid gland.
44 Gonadotropes Produces and secretes hormones to produce sperm in men and eggs in women.
45 Corticotropes Produces & secretes hormones, controls appetite, sexual arousal, hair & skin.
46 Intermediate Pituitary Cells Produces and secretes hormones to control melanin.
47 Magnocellullar neurosecretory In hypothalamus; cell producing oxytocin (the "hormone of love.")
48 Magnocellullar neurosecretory In hypothalamus; cell producing vasopressin (hormone increase water reabsorption in the kidneys)
49 Somatotropes Secretes hormones that regulate growth.
50 Gut & Respiratory Tract Cell Somatostatin secreting cell; inhibits the actions of growth hormones.
51 Gut & Respiratory Tract Cell Serotnin secreting cell; a neurotransmitter that modulates anger, sleep &sexuality
52 Gut & Respiratory Tract Cell Endorphin secreting cell, chemical released during exercise to give pleasure.
53 Gut & Respiratory Tract Cell Gastrin secreting cell; stimulates release of gastric acid for digestion
54 Gut & Respiratory Tract Cell Secretin secreting cell; secrets a base in order to regulate the pH against acids.
55 Gut & Respiratory Tract Cell Cholecystikinin secreting cell; produces a hormone to digest fats and proteins.
56 Gut & Respiratory Tract Cell Insulin secreting cell; a hormone which takes glucose from blood for energy.
57 Gut & Respiratory Tract Cell Glucagon secreting cell; metabolizes carbohydrates; produced by the pancreas.
58 Gut & Respiratory Tract Cell Bombesin secreting cell; produces negative feedback to stop eating.
59 Thyroid Epithal Cell Secretes hormones, one of which regulates the rate of metabolism.
60 Thyroid Parafollicular Cell Secretes hormone that reduces calcium (to regulate it).
61 Parathyroid Chief Cell Secretes hormone that increases calcium (to regulate it).
62 Parathyroid Oxyphil Cell Function unknown at this time.
63 Adrenal Gland Chromaffin Cell Secretes hormones into blood that affects fight or flight response.
64 Adrenal Gland Steroid Secret Cell Secretes hormone to regulate salt and water balance.
65 Leydig Cell Secretes Testosterone From Testes.
66 Theca Internal Cell In ovary, secretes estrogen.
67 Corpus Luteum Cell Cells in follicles that secretes progesterone after follicle is released.
68 Granulosa Lutein Cells Cell that becomes corpus luteum if follicle is fertilized. Sustains the pregnancy.
69 Theca Luetein Cells Cells that release estrogen and androgens when follicle is released.
70 Juxtaglomerular Cell In kidney release hormone that regulates the kidney's functions.
71 Macula Densa Cell of Kidney Releases lipids to trigger juxtamerular cells to release hormones.
72 Extraglomerlar Cells of Kidney Controls blood pressure in kidneys and renal system.
73 Intraglomuerlar Cells of Kidney Performs filtration, structural support and food storage in kidneys.
74 Hepatocyte Cell In liver, protein synthesis, protein storage, bile production and storage.
75 White Fat Cell 20% of mass in people, fat cell that stores energy, also breaks down fats.
76 Brown Fat Cell Generates body heat in new born babies.
77 Liver lypocyte In liver, stores vitamin A, helps repair damaged livers.
78 Kidney Glomerulus Parietal Cell Filtration in kidneys.
79 Kidney Glomerulus Podocyte In kidneys, regulates pH by releasing acids.
80 Kidney Proximal Border Cell In kidneys, permeability.
81 Loop of Henle Cell Cells that make up tubes in kidney.
82 Kidney Distal Tubule Cell Cells that make up tubes in kidney.
83 Kidney Collecting Principle Cell Collects sodium and potassium in kidney.
84 Kidney Coll. Intercalated Cell Performs homeostasis.
85 Type I Pneumocyte Cell Gas exchange in the lungs.
86 Pancreatice Duct Cell Regulates pH in the pancreas.
87 Nonstriated Duct Cell In mammary glands, salivary and sweat glands, balances sodium, potassium and pH.
88 Duct Cells (prostate, seminal) Cells that make up conduit for transmission of fluids
89 Intestinal Brush Border Cells containing microvilli (tiny hairs) used for absorption, secretion, adhesion etc.
90 Exocrine Gland Striated Glands that secrete enzymes in ducts (i.e. prostate, liver, sweat, salivary, mammary).
91 Gall Bladder Epithelial Cells unique to gall bladder with special pouches; GB stores bile to break down fats.
92 Ductulus efferns Nonciliated Seminal ducts from the testes to the Epididymis (without "tiny hairs").
93 Epididymal Principal The bulk of cells of the epidymis; sperm mature and acquire ability to swim in the epididymis.
94 Epididymal Basal Cell Regulates electrolyte and water transport by the principal cells.
95 Blood/Lymph Vasc Fenestrated Cells Cells with tiny openings to allow exchange between blood and tissue; they can change size.
96 Blood/Lymph Vasc Continuous Cells Bulk of cells that make up blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
97 Blood/Lymph Vascular Splenic Cells Spleen's vascular cells. The spleen removes old red blood cells and fights infections.
98 Synovial Cell Cells in joint cavities; liquid and tissue to lubricate elbows, knees, fingers etc.
99 Serousal Cell Cells of serous membranes that contain liquids in hearts, lungs, and abdomen.
100 Squamous; Perilymphatic Ear On outside of cochlea in ear makes liquid to regulate electrochemical impulses of hair cells.
101 Squamous; Endolymphatic Ear On outside of cochlear duct in ear makes liquid to regulate electrochemical impulses of hair cells.
102 Columnar Cell of Endolymphatic Sac with microvilli (ear) Contains liquid of endolymph with "tiny hairs."
103 Columnar Cell of Endolymphatic Sac without microvilli (ear) Contains liquid of endolymph without "tiny hairs."
104 Dark cell (Lining of Ear) Endolymphatic lining of the ear.
105 Vestibular Membrane (Ear) The membrane separating the cochlear duct from the vestibular canal of the ear.
105.5 Stria Vascularis basal (Ear) Base membrane in cochlea contains numerous capillary loops and small blood vessels,
107 Stria Vascularis marginal (Ear) Upper membrane in cochlea contains numerous capillary loops and small blood vessels,
107.4285714 Cell of Claudius (Ear) Cells on the floor of the cochlear duct external to the organ of corti.
108 Cell of Boettcher (Ear) Cells that support the Claudius cells; mediate calcium and ion transport.
109 Choroid Plexus Cells that makes gland that makes liquid that surrounds brain; brain "floats" in it.
109.7142857 Pia Arachnoid Squamous The two delicate layers of the meninges; the meninges protects the spine and brain.
110.5 Pigmented Ciliar (Eye) Part of a muscle system for focusing the eye; also provides nutrients for the eye.
112 Nonpigmented Ciliary (Eye) Part of a muscle system for focusing the eye; also provides nutrients for the eye.
113 Corneal Endothelial The cornea is the crystal clear portion of the surface of the eye that lets light enter.
114 Respiratory Tract Ciliated Cells sweep clean dust and germs trapped in mucus secreted by "goblet cells" (34) in the epithelium.
115 Oviduct Ciliated The passage from the ovaries to the outside of the body (ciliated means hair like)
116 Uterine Endometrial Ciliated Ciliated cells in uterus to assist egg movement.
117 Rete testis Ciliated Ciliated cells in testes to assist sperm movement.
118 Ductulus Efferens Ciliated Seminal ducts from the testes to the Epididymis with cilia.
119 Cliated Ependymal Membrane lining brain and spinal cord; cilia move cerebrospinal fluid.
120 Ameloblast Epithelial Cell Cells that deposit enamel in developing teeth, the hardest substance in humans.
121 Planum Semilunatum Epithelial Outer layer cells on the crista ampullaris, which controls balance.
122 Organ of Corti Epithelial The organ in the inner ear of mammals that contains auditory sensory cells, or "hair cells."
123 Loose connective tissue fibroblasts Holds epitelia (cells on surface of organ) to the organ; also promote healing.
124 Corneal fibroblasts Holds cornea together and promotes healing.
125 Tendon fibroblasts Holds tendons together and promotes healing.
126 Bone marrow fibroblasts Holds bone marrow together and promotes healing.
127 Nonepithelial fibroblasts The main function of fibroblasts is to maintain the structural integrity of connective tissues
128 Pericyte Supports small blood vessels in brain and elsewhere; they regulate blood flow.
129 Pulpous Cell of invert. Disc Jelly-like substance in the middle of the spinal disc. It functions to distribute hydraulic pressure in all directions within each disc under compressive loads.
130 Cementoblast Hard tissue that covers the roots of our teeth
131 Odontoblast Part of the outer surface of the dental pulp; biological function is the creation of dentin, the substance under the tooth enamel.
132 Hyaline Cartilage Chrondocyte Cells that protect the ends of bones by coating them with a slimy mass.
133 Fibrocartilage Chrondocyte Flexible cartilage in the hips, knees etc.
134 Elastic Cartilage Chrondocyte A type of cartilage present in the outer ear, larynx, and epiglottis (root of tongue).
135 Osteoblast/Osteocyte Responsible for bone formation; bones are constantly being rebuilt and reshaped.
136 Osteoprogenator Cell Stem cell progenitor for osteoblasts.
137 Hyalocyte of vitreous of eye Cells for canal for optic nerve in the eye.
138 Stellate Cell perilymphatic of ear Neurons (electrically excitable cells in nervous system that process & transmit info) in the ear
139 Red skeletal Muscle Cell (slow) Muscles attached to tendons, slow twitch is associated with endurance.
140 White skeletal muscle cell (fast) Fast twitch is associated with speed; powerful short contractions.
141 Intermediate skeletal muscle Muscle fibers that are neither fast twitch or slow twitch.
142 Nuclear Bag Cell Lie in the center of muscle spindle. Cause excitation of nerve fibers.
143 Nuclear Chain Cell Sensory organ contained within muscle for the detection of changes in muscle length.
144 Satellite cell (stem cell) A stem cell (progenitor) that will become a muscle cell.
145 Myocardiocyte cell Cells that make up the muscle tissue of the heart.
146 Nodal heart muscle cell Tissue that functions as both muscle & nervous tissue; nodal tissue contracts like muscle tissue & generates nerve impulses like nervous tissue.
147 Purkinje fiber cell (in heart) These fibers conduct electrical stimulus so heart contracs in a coordinated fashion.
148 Smooth muscle cell In arteries, veins, bladder, uterus, male and female reproductive tracts & more.
149 Myoepithelial Cell of Iris Cells that give the pigment to the eye; two cells thick.
150 Myoepithelial Cell of exocrine gland Contracts and expels the secretions of exocrine glands and harbors progenitor cells.
151 Erythrocyte (red blood cell) Body's principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs to body tissues via blood.
152 Megakaryocyte A bone marrow cell responsible for production of blood platelets for blood clotting.
153 Monocyte Blood cells essential for immune system and fighting infection.
154 Connective tissue macrophage Part of immune system, they "eat" old cells and cells that invaded the body.
155 Epidermal langerhans cell Part of immune system in skin, they produce antigens to fight infections.
156 Osteoclast (in bones) Removes bone tissue by removing its mineralized matrix, releasing minerals to blood.
157 Dendritic Cells Part of immune system in skin, lungs, stomach, intestines etc.
158 Microglial Cell (Cent. Nerve. Sys) Constantly moving & analyzing CNS for damaged neurons, plaques, and infections.
159 Neutrophil granulocyte Most abundant type of white blood cells in humans: essential part of immune system.
160 Eosinophl granulocyte White blood cells of immune system; responsible for combating infection & parasites.
161 Basophil granulocyte Small % of white blood cells, stores histimine (histamine tells immune sys where to go.
162 Mast Cell Play important protective role in wound healing and defense against pathogens.
163 Helper T Cell Plays important role in establishing & maximizing capabilities of the immune system.
164 Suppressor T Cell Act to suppress activation of immune system; thereby maintain immune sys. Homeostasis
165 Cytotoxic T Cell Can induce death of infected somatic or tumor cells; kill cells infected with viruses.
166 Natural Killer T Cell White blood cell that can kill tumor cells or microbial cells.
167 B Cell From bone marrow, makes antibodies for immune system.
168 Natural Killer Cell Essential for immunity; when absent, high rates of cancer and diabetes.
169 Reticulocyte Immature red blood cells, they mature in blood stream.
170 Stem Cells Have ability to differentiate into other cells in human.
171 Auditory inner hair cell of organ of Corti Mechanical movement results in electrical impulse to brain.
172 Auditory outer hair cell of organ of Corti Mechanically amplify low-level sound that enters the cochlea.
173 Basal Cell Stem Epithelia Stem cells for cells specially designed for the sense of smell.
174 Cold sensitive primary sensory neurons Cells designed to sense cold.
175 Heat sensitive primary sensory neurons Cells designed to sense heat.
176 Merkel Cell of epidermis In skin, cells that sense touch.
177 Olfactory Receptor Neuron The primary transduction cell in the olfactory system; humans have 40 million.
178 Pain Sensitive Primary sensory neuron Cells designed to sense pain.
179 Photoreceptor Blue Sensitive Cone Cones are neurons (nerve cells) in the retina of the eyes. They convert light into electral impulses that the brain processes. Human have three types of cones that respond to blue, green and red light.
180 Photoreceptor Green Sensitive Cone
181 Photoreceptor Red Sensitive Cone
182 Proprioceptive primary sensory neurons Neurons in the brain which sense of the orientation of one's limbs in space (i.e. feet when walking).
183 Touch sensitive primary sensory neurons Neurons that specialize in processing touch.
184 Type I carotid body cell (artery) Sense chemistry of blood and release numerous chemicals to modulate.
185 Type II carotid body cell (artery) Provides support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis
186 Type I hair cell of vestibular ear Tear drop shaped hair, contributor to balance system in humans.
187 Type II hair cell of vestibular ear Cylinder shaped hair, contributor to balance system in humans.
188 Type I taste bud cell Cells to detect taste, not just on tongue but also on soft palate, and epiglottis.
189 Cholinergic neural cell Cells in the parasympathetic nervous system that regulate body functions.
190 Adrenergic neural cell Cells with receptors that produce fight or flight response (i.e. faster heart rate).
191 Peptidergic neural cell Nerve cells that secrete proteins.
192 Inner pillar cell organ of Corti The organ of Corti has ordered rows that form a boundary around hair cells. Without the pillar cells, deafness results.
193 Outer pillar cell organ of Corti
194 Inner phalangeal Cell of organ of Corti Supporting cells of the organ of Corti attached to the basement membrane and forming rows that support the hair cell
195 Outer phalangeal Cell of organ of Corti
196 Border Cell of organ of Corti Cells allowing permeability in the ear.
197 Hensen Cell of organ of Corti A supporting cell in the spiral organ of the ear.
198 Vestibular apparatus supporting cell Contributor to balance & sense of spatial orientation, the system that provides the dominant input about movement and equilibrium.
199 Type I taste bud supporting cell Cells that form am outer envelope for supporting the bud.
200 Olfactory epithelium supporting cell Cells that support the olfactory receptor neurons. A type of supporting cell.
201 Schwann Cell Cells that cover nerve fibers in peripheral nervous system & form the myelin sheath.
202 Satellite Cell (Nerve Cell) Cells that encapsulate peripheral nerve cell bodies,
203 Enteric Glial Cell Cells that directly control the gastrointestinal system.
204 Astrocyte Provide nutrients to nervous tissue, and play role in the repair processes in the brain.
205 Neuron Cells Core component of brain, vertebrate spinal cord, and the peripheral nerves.
206 Oligodendrocyte Insulation of the axons exclusively in the central nervous system.
207 Spindle neuron Cells that refract waves of neural signals from one region of the brain to other regions
208 Anterior Lens Epithelial Cell Makes delicate adjustments in light rays to bring the light into focus upon the retina.
209 Crystalline containing Lens Fiber Cell A water-soluble structural protein in the lens of the eye, accounts for transparency.
210 Melanocyte Skin cell that produces melanin, a brown pigment that helps screen against UV light.
211 Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cell Pigmented cell layer outside the neurosensory retina; nourishes retinal visual cells.
212 Oogonium/Oocyte An immature ovum.
213 Spermatid A cell produced by spermatocyte; it develops into the spermatozoon
214 Spermatogonium Cell Stem Cell for spermatocyte.
215 Spermatozoon The mature sperm cell.
216 Ovarian Follicle Cell Basic unit of female reproductive biology; eventually matures to an oocyte.
217 Sertoli Cell AKA "mother cells" nurtures developing sperm cells through stages of spermatogenesis.
218 Thymus Epithelial Cell Thymus stimulates production of infection-fighting cells. Important in maturation of T cells
219 Interstitial Kidney Cell Fibrous tissue in kidney but not related to filtration.

QUESTIONS FOR EVOLUTIONISTS
1 Which cell evolved first? Last? Which evolved 100th?
2 If these cells rely on each other in order to function, explain how they each evolved?
3 These 219 developed from stem cells. How did the stems know how to make 219 different cells?
4 Describe how one, just one of these cells evolved. What did they evolve from? Explain how all 219 evolved.
5 Do you honestly not see design in any of these cells?